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Business, finance, and government administration. Ferguson Publishing. Teachers should be creative and innovative in teaching process because students today are called generation Z which need different teaching method in this era McKenzie, Moreover, Trilling and Fadel state that after graduating from schools students lack some 21st century skills such as communication, critical thinking, collaboration, and creativity or 4Cs skills. Those skills are important for students to face the opportunities and the challenges in this globalization era.
This case study was conducted in one of university in Salatiga by using interview and observation as data collection techniques. The aims of this study was to gain a deeper insight about teaching and learning activities which contain 4Cs skills in English drama class to improve students English language skills. The participants of this study were an English drama lecturer and 20 students from cross study programs.
The results indicated that the lecturer used Project Based Learning PBL to provide the students 21st century skills activities in the classroom to arrange drama performance.
The result generally showed that the lecturer tried to drive the students to dominate the class especially in speaking skill. By using drama performance as the students project, the lecturer can give a new atmosphere for the students in learning English. Trilling and Fadel Similarity, according to Cator to make students succeed in 21st century, lecturers should provide the strategies how to prepare students career in the future by improving their critical thinking and interpersonal communication skills.
Therefore, to help students in mastering their 4Cs skills, the teachers should integrate it in the teaching and learning activities. Furthermore, teachers need an appropriate learning model to integrate 4Cs skills in English learning and teaching process.
Setiadi , one of the challenges faced by English teacher in Indonesia is the lack of communicative activities in the teaching and learning process. Teachers always emphasize on grammar by implementing GTM grammar translation method. Bender Bell argues that by using standardized test many of 21 st century skills were not measurable. However, teacher can make an authentic assessment by using PBL. Therefore, students can learn from their processes of learning.
Ravitz, Hixson, English, and Mergendoller state that project based learning will give the impact for students if used by a professional teacher who expert in project based learning.
From this opinion, teachers can use PBL for teaching English; especially for productive language skills, namely writing and speaking skills. By using PBL students are able to response complex questions, problems, or challenges and to master the 21 st century skills, especially 4Cs skills. With regards to the explanations above, the researcher investigated one of university in Salatiga which had some programs to prepare the students in facing globalization era.
Based on the previous observation, the researcher found an interesting student support programs in International Class Program namely bilingual drama performance which is shown in Art and Language Exhibition ALE in semester 4. ICP provided English and Arabic drama classes in curriculum to train the students in improving their 4Cs skills and language skills.
These drama classes conducted twice in semester 1 and semester 2. This drama takes folklore as a title of story and Javanese puppet or wayang wong as a theme. Moreover, the students not only performed the drama but also showed traditional dance. Through this activity the students were able to explain Indonesian culture to the foreigners from other countries.
In this case, the researcher only focused on English drama class in International Class Program. From previous observation, the researcher found that the lecturer of English drama class teaches the students by using Project Based Learning PBL which 4Cs skills were included in each step of this method in teaching and learning process. In this case, the researcher was interested in how the lecturer taught 4Cs skills by using Project Based Learning in English drama class, how English drama class provided students 4Cs and English language skills, and the policies of the university that how these supported the students to improve their 4Cs skills and English ability in International Class Program.
Based on the background of the study, the researcher identified this problem namely: How does the lecturer teach 4Cs skills by using project based learning in the English drama class? The 19 skills of 21 st century skills are divided into three groups.
P21 The 19 skills of 21st century skills are divided into three groups. The first group is learning and innovation that consist of creativity and innovation, critical thinking and problem solving, communication, and collaboration. The second group is information and technology that consist of information literacy, media literacy, and ICT literacy. Wallwork agrees that in education 4Cs skills are touted as a soft skill key for students to be competitive and competent in finding job by emphasizing collaboration, creativity, critical thinking and communication skills.
Project Based Learning Project based learning is a learning model to engage students, teachers, and curriculum. Then, students can do their assignment personally or in group to achieve the standard Harrigan, Bell She also argues that by using project based learning students can learn from their processes of learning. A recent study indicates that there are some benefits in using Project Based Learning in the classroom.
Sumarni There are several positive impacts of using PBL in the classroom. Dewi argues that PBL activities in the classroom make the student fun and enjoy and also the use of students project that is relevant to the real world will reinforce students knowledge.
She also adds that to make PBL activities successful in the classroom, the teacher should minimize stiff and formal relationship between the teacher and students. On the contrary, there are some experts find some challenges of PBL. This learning method requires much time because students have to solve the problem. It will give the impact to time allocation for the subject Grant: Morover, Sumarni Edutopia provides six steps of Project Based Learning in teaching and learning process, namely: Furthermore, according to Larmer in conducting PBL activities to improve students 4Cs skills, the teachers should pay attention to these three aspects namely design, develop, and determine.
Design The purpose of this project is to provide 4Cs skills in each opportunity. Therefore, in this aspect the lecturer can do these steps: Drive the students to promote their critical thinking by using questions for their project. Design the process of project that emphasizes critical thinking skill. For instance scientific investigations. Give the reasons to students why they should work collaboratively. Find the ways how to interact with the experts and communicate with them for students.
Promote students creativity and innovation skills by using project that engage design and invention, challenges, problem-solving tasks, and arts integration.
Ask the students to do the project in real-life like how people think critically, work together, communicate with audience and use creativity to create some products. Teach the students how to solve the problem and evaluate the information to answer a question.
Arrange the project teams with strategy, shared leadership experience, manage team building activities, set up norms for collaboration, and lead the students to make decisions in their team. Strengthen the students active speaking and listening, explain the way to students how to speak with adult experts, utilize communication technology, and arrange the presentations.
Promote the culture in the classroom by building students creativity skill with their great ideas; explain how to brainstorm and using critique protocols to improve rough drafts and prototypes. Help English learners to think carefully about language functions in the 21st century learning activities to access the project with collaborative discussions.
Determine The teacher should determine the results of the project by assessing students 4Cs skills. Provide rubrics that describe each of the 4Cs skills. Ask the students to keep the journal of the project to record their 4Cs skills. Help the students to reflect their progress in improving 4Cs skills at the end of the project. Put 4Cs skills into project grading system. METHODS Participants The participants of this study were an English drama lecturer and 20 4th semester students of International Class Program that consisted of 8 students from English education program, 7 students from Islamic education program, and 5 students from Arabic education program.
For the detail information of ICP students, there were 12 female students and 8 male students and the students age around years old. Data Collection Techniques Punch This study used four data collection techniques namely interview, observation, and documentation to obtain the information. The detail information of the implementation of 4Cs skills by using project based learning in English drama class were explained as follows: After the students watched the video, the lecturer divided the students into four groups which contained five students for each group.
The lecturer asked the students to criticize the strengths and the weaknesses of the drama video in the discussion session and then each student gave her or his opinion about the drama. The lecturer led the students to think critically by solving the problems found in the discussion session. After the students discussed the strengths and the weaknesses of the drama, the lecturer asked the students to write an outline how to make a better English drama.
In the end of the class, the lecturer asked the students to submit their assignments and gave homework to make a short monologue as an assignment for the next meeting. Designing a Plan for the Project In this step, the lecturer checked the students monologue assignments and asked them one by one to read their monologue in front of the class.
Each student had around three minutes to read their monologue. Overall, it took 60 minutes for this activity. In this session, the lecturer tried to identify the students who had capability to be a narrator in the drama by measuring students individual performance when they read the monologue. After the students read the monologue, the lecturer gave the feedback for students especially in pronouncing the words.
Subsequently, the lecturer divided the students into five groups which consist of four students. The lecturer asked for each group to design a simple drama by choosing one of monologues in their groups.
In this activity, the lecturer asked the students to discuss about plot, scene, and character for their simple drama. In the end of the class, the students wrote the results of discussion and submitted it to the lecturer. Creating Schedule The lecturer asked the students to arrange the three activities.
The first activity was preproduction to arrange all of things that should be prepared before performance such as script and cast. The second activity was production; it meant time for the students to perform their drama. The last activity was post-production to evaluate students performance. After that, the lecturer asked the students to sit with their groups to discuss their last assignment about plot, scene, and character for their simple drama.
The lecturer gave the chance to each group to present their drama plans while the other groups should give comment or suggestion. After finishing the presentation, the lecturer and the students discussed together to arrange the schedule for pre-production to prepare the script and cast, production to prepare students performance, and post-production for evaluation. The lecturer asked the students to prepare their drama script as homework for next meeting.
The lecturer asked the students to prepare their drama script as homework for the next meeting. Monitoring the Students In the first pre-production, the lecturer focused on the students drama script and asked the students to continue to write their drama script. In this activity, the students sat with their own group.
The lecturer opened the opportunity to the students if they had questions related to the drama script. In the end of class, the lecturer asked the students to submit their script. Before ending the class, the lecturer notified the students that the topic for next meeting was about the character in the drama. In the second pre-production, the lecturer gave some feedbacks for students drama script.
The lecturer asked to the students to discuss the character in the drama that was suitable for each member in their own groups. While discussion session, the lecturer walked around to the students and asked them about their problems. The lecturer opened the opportunity to the students if they had questions related to their drama preparation.
After the discussion session, each group presented their results of discussion. In the end of class, the lecturer asked the students to perform their mini drama in the next week. Assessing the Outcome The lecturer gave the opportunity for each group to perform their drama. Each group had 15 minutes to show their mini drama and it took 75 minutes. In this step the lecturer assessed the students work. The lecturer also asked the students to assess their classmates assignment.
After the students performed the drama, the lecturer asked them to give their opinion about their friends drama performance. In the end of the class, the lecturer gave a feedback for the students performance. Evaluating the Experience The lecturer gave some feedbacks for the students about their last performance. Because the students still had the next project namely drama performance in Art and Language Exhibition, the lecturer asked the students to prepare their big drama performance in the fourth semester.
The lecturer divided the students into four groups to discuss about the title of drama, character, and plot of drama. After that, the students presented their results of discussion. The lecturer gave the opportunity for each group to ask question to the presenters.
After the students presented their works, the lecturer asked them to vote one of the drama titles. There were four titles from students presentations. The lecturer asked to all students to choose one of the best titles according to their own opinion. The results of voting were 8 students choosing Kidung Katresnan Arimbi, 6 students choosing Perang Baratayuda, 4 students choosing Arjuna, and 2 students choosing Pandawa Limo. Therefore, the students drama project in the 4th semester was Kidung Katresnan Arimbi.
The reason why the title of the drama used Indonesian language or Javanese language was to attract people attention. Even though the drama used English and Arabic language, they also put Javanese language terms in their drama to introduce Javanese culture.
In the end of the class, the lecturer gave some feedbacks for students activities. From the results of observation and the lecturer interview, it can be concluded that the students had two projects namely mini drama in the classroom as an assignment in the second semester and the big drama performance in the fourth semester as follow up of English drama class.
In other words, the students had one semester left to prepare their final project or drama performance in the third semester. Even though, in the third semester there was no English drama class, the lecturer still monitored the students to prepare their drama performance.
As mentioned before, the students big drama performance was Art and Language Exhibition shown on Wednesday April 26 th in the university auditorium under the title Kidung Katresnan Dewi Arimbi. Moreover, after performing big drama performance in Art and Language Exhibition the students got a reward in the form of certificate as committee and actor or actress.
Picture 1. Students Project Poster There were three points to be highlighted based on the finding of the first research question. Firstly, it could be generally observed that the lecturer tried to drive the students to speak dominantly in the classroom activities.
Secondly, the lecturer gave the opportunity to students to express their ideas in arranging the project. Thirdly, the students struggled to improve their speaking skill when they presented or discussed their work or communicated with their lecturer and classmates. Additionally, the teaching and learning process in this course used English as language medium. In the English drama class activities, the lecturer tried to combine the concept of language teaching and 4Cs skills by using PBL.
According to Larmer in arranging and assessing PBL activities to achieve 4Cs skills can be seen from these three aspects namely design, develop, and determine. Design In this aspect, the lecturer designed the activities in the classroom by emphasizing 4Cs skills.
By starting with the question the lecturer asked the students to criticize the topic to drive students critical thinking to solve the problem Edutopia, The design of the activities led the students to work in group therefore the lecture asked the students to make discussions to enrich their vocabulary and improve their collaboration and communication skills Harrigan, It can arouse the students creativity and innovation skills to make some project Sumarni, Even though almost all the students assignments were done in group, the lecturer also paid attention to the individual students work Harrigan, Develop In this aspect the lecturer should build students skills to make a project by explaining the characteristics of 4Cs skills and providing the steps to achieve these skills Larmer, The lecturer in the English drama class not explicitly told to the students about 4Cs skills and how to achieve it but from each PBL activity in the English drama class contained 4Cs skills for students.
Moreover, the activities in the classroom such as discussion and presentation supported the students 4Cs skills and language skills especially in speaking and writing Bender, Determine In this part, the lecturer determined the result of the project by assessing how well the students learned English language by employing Project Based Learning containing 4Cs skills.
Here, the lecturer did not measure students 4C skills but helped the students to improve their language skills by involving 4Cs skills in the English drama assessment. To cope with that, it was better to the lecturer assess the students not only their productive language skills but also 4Cs skills by using scoring rubric Lamer, All the activities in the English drama class were to attract the students English language skills especially speaking and writing skills.
Creating Space and Opportunities to Use 4Cs and Language Skills From the findings above, the lecturer not only focused to the students learning outcome but also made the knowledge into the long term memory for the students by giving the innovative activity in the classroom.
From the finding above, it can be concluded that the activities containing critical thinking skill in the classroom were the discussion and the presentation. In these activities the students tried to solve the problem together in arranging the drama Willingham, The students also can learn to give the reason logically in order to not be manipulated with other arguments Brookfield, Moreover, the activity which contains communication skill is in the interaction between student and student or lecturer and student in the classroom Keyton, The students project was conducted in group; therefore each student has his or her own responsibility, this activity contains collaboration skill which all students help each other to finish their project Lai, Moreover, in making the project the students also cooperate with some experts Larmer, It also helped the students in improving their collaboration skill in the real life.
Whereas, in designing the drama the students were demanded to make a good drama. Therefore, it drives students creativity skill to arrange their project in order to be more creative, innovative, and interesting Beghetto, It was interesting to note that almost the students agreed they can improve their English skills in this English drama class. Diagram 6 explained that all students agreed that English drama class provided speaking, listening, and reading skills activities whereas only 15 students chose writing skill because in the writing session they just got a few part of making the script and it was not an academic writing but just part of translation.
By involving 4Cs skills in PBL activities for English classroom, the lecturer can make a new atmosphere in teaching and learning process Sumarni, Moreover, this study also added information about the support programs in the university to improve students English language skills and 4Cs skills.
There were two points that can be concluded in this study. Based on the finding, the lecturer taught the class by starting with the essential question to improve students critical thinking skills. The lecturer also participated in designing plan and creating the schedule of the project to improve students communication and collaboration skills. Moreover, to improve students creativity skill, the lecturer monitored the students project by giving some feedbacks for them.
As mentioned before, the lecturer used Project Based Learning that involved 4Cs skills to stimulus the students in improving their productive language skills. The results generally showed that the lecturer drove the students to dominate the class especially in speaking skill during teaching and learning process or the lecturer more emphasizes on communicative activity Setiadi, Most of the students agreed that English drama class provided the activities for their 4Cs skills and language skills.
Even though, some students argued that they have small proportion in speaking and writing skills activities, it was caused by group assignment more than individual assignment. Critical Skills Survey: Executive Summary. Accessed on January Retrieved from: Bell, S. Project-Based Learning for the 21st Century: Skills for the Future. The Clearing House, Vol. Bender, W. Project-Based Learning.
Differentiating instruction for the 21st century. Corwin a SAGE company. Cator, K. Accessed on December Retrieved from: Tools for understanding the process of planning and building projects. Accesed February Retrieved from: A call for more awareness in Colombia. From Theory to Practice.
English Language Teaching, 2, Grant, M. Getting a Grip on PBL: Theory, Cases and Recommendations. Accessed on December Retrieved from Harrigan, G.
A case study of teachers and administrators' experiences integrating project-based learning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Walden University. Larmer, J. Driving Question: Partnership for 21st Century Learning P Accessed on April Retrieved from: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences.
Miles, M. Qualitative Data Analysis a Methods Sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication, 3rd edition. Partnership of 21st Century Learning P P21 Framework Definitions. Accessed on August Retrieved from: Punch, K. Introduction to Research Methods in Education.
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SAGE Publication. Ravitz, J. Using project based learning to teach 21 st century skills: Findings from a statewide initiative. Setiadi, B. Presented at Bandar Lampung University. Sumarni, W. Learning for Life in Our Times first. Wallwork, C. Reframing the 4 Cs: Accesed on January Retrieved from: The research follows the design of model of the Branch There are five steps from the design model of the Branch , namely; analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation ADDIE.
To collect the data, the instrument that writer used are the observation, instrument validation and test sheets. To validate instrument products, expert assessment of the strategies are chosen by using the delphi technique and continued with exploration of the feasibility which is applied by using focus group discussions technique. The data will be analyzed through qualitative and quantitative techniques.
In order to get the book of entrepreneurship learning model and the guidebook based on the contextual, the data were analyzed by using qualitative and quantitative methods. The validity of the product are tested by expert, the practical test by the user, and the effectiveness test trought the students learning outcomes. The results of the development consists of 1 bookentrepreneurship learning model based on contextual, 2 the lecturers guidebook of entrepreneurship learningmodel based on contextual, 3 student handbook learning model based on contextual is valid, practical and effective.
The competitiveness can be owned in the country if the country are supported by a human resources HR which are reliable and has of high quality. The proper effort to preparing the human resource is through the education. The quality of education in Indonesia is still low than other countries. Based on the data from the Human Development Index HDI , expose that Indonesia is on the position of from countries, from four categories very high human development, high human development, medium human development and low human development.
Indonesia is in the category of medium that is still far behind other countries. According to Fattah, All sorts of efforts already made by the Governments, communities, and schools such as curriculum development, cooperation with non-governmental organizations and revision policy, while at the university level, the problem of the equivalent of evenness increased the quantity to increase the participation of University in development.
However, due to various factors that influence, the problem will still need to improve. Three major problems of education in Indonesia can be addressed by improving the quality of learning.
Although learning is in the micro level, but can determine the progress of education, because learning is the core of education. The development of entrepreneurship is seen as a strategic step in an effort to demonstrate its resolve economic problems. However, the number of entrepreneurs in Indonesia is still relatively low, i. It is therefore that still required additional significant self-employment to accelerate the growth of the socio-economic. The university as one of the leading facilitator and mediator in building the nation's younger generation who has an obligation to teach, to educate, to train and motivate its student to become an independent generation of intelligent, creative, innovative and capable of creating a wide range of job opportunities business.
The process of entrepreneurial education is a process of potential development of individuals pertaining in all aspects of entrepreneurship through management, the implementation of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment in one environment that isstructured and organized.
A lecturer is the main pillar in the development of entrepreneurship in the university. The lecturer who have knowledge and understanding of entrepreneurship will be able to guide the student in developing efforts to initiate and process accelerated so the new entrepreneurial growth. Refraction Optisi studies program is one of the higher education students in the field of health that makes entrepreneurship courses as compulsory subjects.
It is the entrepreneurial courses that make up the entrepreneurial character or at least students add to the knowledge of the ins and outs of the business both in the soft skills or hard skills so that the students are able to take the advantage of the opportunities that exist around them in creating their own business after graduation or when they are in the university level. The difficulty of students in refraction Optisi is in understanding the entrepreneurial courses due to the still theoretical learning, so that the students feel difficulties and are not interested in learning the entrepreneurial subjects well.
The process of learning in entrepreneurship is still centered on the lecturer teacher centered learning that impact the lack of activity of college students in learning,less motivated in doing the tasks given by the lecturer, less creative and not responsible for given tasks, the results of the learning of students in the subjects of entrepreneurship is still notsatisfactory,that is apparent from the percentage of the results of the study with the most value are the C as For it, is needed for entrepreneurial learning changes continuously towards the better.
One of the way to continue the development of the learning process is by applying the appropriate learning model with changing times where a student is being required to interpret, critical and active learning, so the learning process does not run one the direction. Entrepreneurial education approach is expected to give a real experience to students as models developed by Kolb which is known as Experiential Learning. According to research done by Duval-Couetil et al.
Findings indicate that higher perceptions of entrepreneurial knowledge were associated with the number of entrepreneurship courses taken and involvement in experiential learning activities. The results of this study showed that the ability of the student in entrepreneurship process analytical study using more experiential learning models have development is academic ability compared to other learning model.
Based on the theory of experiental learning model, then a new experience and the knowledge gained will be absorbed when students catch the meaning of academic material and applicable to the real life. With contextual learning, students are involved in important activities that can help them to associate the academic lessons with the real life context.
According to Owens , contextual learning practically promising increased thestudents interested in learning from different backgrounds, increase the participation ofstudents by encouraging actively which is provide them the opportunity to connect and apply the knowledge that they get. Learning is not only focused on the ability of knowledge provision granting theoretical only,but how to make the learning experience of the student-owned related to actual problems that occur in the environment.
The contextual learning make teaching and learning process more fun and makes the material useful for the real life of the student in the collage, because the learning process is carried out naturally and students can pay attentionand try to practice it directly in their life. Contextual learning encourages students to find the meaning and the benefits of every learning process which have been completed, so that will give the motivation to the students to learn more creative, innovative and meaningful.
Contextual learning can be followed by all the students from the varying levels of ability in achieving the academic success. Contextual learning involve the students in every important activities that help them to associate the academic lessons with the real life context that they face Johnson, Many experts have argued that the definitions of entrepreneurship with perspective of each. However the essence essence of the understanding that there are always crucial in every sense expressed by experts and is fundamental.
According to Lambing and Kuehl , enterpreneurship is a human, creative act that builds something of value from practically nothing. It is the pursuit of opportunity regardless of the resources, or lack of resources, at hand. It requires a vision and the passion and commitment to lead others in the pursuit of that vision. It also requires a willingness to take calculated risks. Entrepreneurship is the willingness of entrepreneurs to combine creativity, innovation, risk taking, and sooth working to form and build up trade, maximise the potential as well as take advantage of opportunities that are retrieved BuangdanMurni, The instruments used in this research to collect the data are observational, instrument validation and test sheets.
Need analysis is done while doing the research in order to get a learning model which is valid and practical and appropriate with the teachers needs. The need analysis stage is done in order to make the model eill answer the need of the learning process. This analysis is important to be done to make the material that will be given to the college students fulfill their needs and the model will be appropriate for the lecturers need. Because of that, need analysis is needed to be done whether to the college students or the lecturers.
There are some processes of validation for the entrepreneurship learning contextual based such as the validation of book model, lecturers and students guidebook, practicality and affectivity instruments, and all of the instruments used are validated by some experts based on their fields of study.
The analysis of the students need analysis to the entrepreneurship learning results that it is needed to develop a model where it results an average of 45 with low category and a development is needed. The result for the validity of the instruments which is done by 3 experts, it results an average The analysis of validity for guidebook for the lecturers for the learning process is valid with number of average The result for students guidebook which is validated by 3 experts is 0.
All of the instruments are tested where they are tested through practicality test model which is filled by the both students and lecturers. Then, this test results that this learning model is practical for both the process and the guidebook. The practicality is seen from the successfulness of the students in the learning process. The test which is given to the entrepreneurship lesson result an average in number and categorized as high. This research is purposed to explain the influence of contextual based learning and the ability to think critically to the skill for writing argumentative text for the college students.
The population of this research are college students and 52 of them are chosen as the sample in stage of multi-sampling. The research which is done byrobert G. Berns and Patricia M. Erickson entitled Contextual Teaching and Learning: Preparing Students for the New Economy. The Highlight Zone: Research Work No. The CTL is a concept of learning that will help the lecturers to relate the material with the real situation and how it is used in lives as the member of family, society and work-place.
Pribadi explained that the learning model, usually, uses some stages or procedures that have to be faces in order to create an effective, efficient and interesting learning activity.
Iru and Arihi stated that the learning model is the center of learning done is based on such systematically learning patterns. The learning model tends to be prescriptive giving signs and purposed which is hard to be differentiated with learning strategy. Therefore, a learning model is a plan or pattern that can be used for constructing a curriculum long-term learning plan , construct the learning materials and guide the learning process in the classroom. Joyce and Weil found five important elements that become the components of learning model where those elements are syntax, social system, reaction principal, supporting system and the instructional and guiding impacts.
In this case the development of entrepreneurship learning model used is practical and effective. Classroom Instructional Management.
The McGraw-Hill Company. Branch, Robert Maribel. Instructional Design: Springer New York Derdrecht Heldelberg. Buang, Nor Aishah. Pedagogi Pengajian Keusahawanan. Laser Press Sdn.
Selangor Darul Ehsan. Coulter, Marry. Entrepreneurship in Action. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Dean, D. How to use focus groups. Wholey, H. Newcomer Eds. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Rahasia Kewirausahaan. Hasani, Aceng. Dasar-Dasar Kewirausahaan.
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Howey, Kenneth R. Dalam Forum Vol. Johnson, Elaine B. Contextual Teaching and Learning: Corwin Press. Kold, D. Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Lambing, Peggy A dan Charles R.
Models, Strategies, and Methods. For EffectiveTeaching. Pearson Education, Inc. Linstone, H. The delphi method techniques and applications. Electronic version. Nurhadi dkk. UM Press. Owens, T. Portland, Oregon: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Rajawali Press. Zimmerer, Thomas W dan Norman M. Edisi Keempat. It is a series of actions driven by international trade and investment and aided by sophisticated information technology. Understanding and knowledge of one or several languages empowers to perceive new horizon, to think globally, and to increase our understanding of ourselves and of our neighbors.
It also leads to the extinction of other languages and cultures with globalization allowing languages and their cultures to spread and dominate on other languages. Today, English is well-known from the other languages by having very considerable numbers of non-native speakers and it is one of the most affected by globalization.
Many languages are disappearing on daily basis and many are wiped out already. The use of language is used as characteristics to be part of the new world system and this develops new global phenomena. Imported cultures are taking place everywhere and pushing out indigenous ones. The paper attempted to look at how globalization has affected the Bodo language and its cultures.
The outcomes and narratives are extremely important and well timed to understand the causes of declining use of the said language and how the indigenous cultures were immensely affected.
Survival of the language in coming decades in the face of globalization is highly questionable and if prepared, we can reverse the trend. Though it is not an altogether new phenomenon but the intensity and the speed at which it has changed and affected the world is unparalleled.
In every sphere of life be it economic, political, social or cultural it is leaving its indelible mark. It would not be wrong exaggeration if we say that no part of the life on this world has escaped from the influence of globalization. With the advancement and ever expansion of the globalization, it has highly increased the exposure to the international environment which in turn increases the possibility of international influences and exploitation.
Globalization has become fiercely contested and discussed issue in current political, social and human rights discourses. At one level it has been tremendously much-admired for delivering goods to the people and society at large by ushering in a new era of economic growth, technological advancement and by bridging the geographical boundaries, but at the other level it is blamed as a major reason and source of all the existing ills.
While for some it is the very expression of social and economic transformation, for others it poses an impediment to the governance of the world and a serious intimidation to social cohesion. Likewise, economic globalization now dominates international relations and development strategy consists of liberal trading regimes, with a reduced role for the state. International relations now involve states, the market, multinational corporations and international organizations.
Bodo is a language of North East India spoken by the Bodo people, a prominent ethnic group inhabiting Assam. The language is spoken by more than 20, 00, twenty lakhs people and adopted Devanagari script as their writing system. The early history of Bodos is largely unknown. By definition, Bodos do not display tribalisitic culture or rituals in that they do not live in caves or jungles or go hunting wild animals. The majority of the Bodos have remained as cultivators, farmers, and peace loving society for centuries.
It is a developing language in the field of education and literature. The said language was recognized as the Associate State Language of Assam in the year and it was also recognized as the medium of instruction in the school level from and as one of the Modern Indian Languages from under Gauhati University in Assam.
The Bodos are numerically and sociologically one of the most important tribes of the North-Eastern India, particularly Assam. While they are spread all over the plains of lower Assam and contiguous areas of North Bengal, they have intimate family ties with many other tribes living in other parts of Assam and also in Tripura a neighboring state.
Bodos are living in a scattered manner throughout the North-Eastern region of India. There are some small Bodo pocket areas also outside India i. The current wave of globalization has brought new paradigm shift to the said language. The brutal developments of the English language including the many interior areas at the cost of own language and new trend development of cultural appropriation has raised certain fundamental questions before the community leaders.
The timely execution of some policy and understanding its nature is very much needed and vital. Many a time, we also observed serious human rights violations and though human rights are now internationalized and there are various agencies and organizations which are working towards the fulfillment of human rights, it is still the responsibility of the individual state to implement them.
And it puts the onus on the states and on the international community to safeguard the rights of its respective citizens and ethnic community. Culture refers to behavior which is specifically human and also to the distinctive ways of life found in different human populations. As we are well aware that in this dynamic world, alongside the languages that have become worldwide, there are certainly others the huge majority which have remained limited and confined in size and scope.
There are close to 6, living languages in the world, and half of them have fewer than 7, speakers each, less than a village. The worst suffer are smaller languages of all over the world and they are miserably failed to attract the younger generation and language shift is taking place at a rapid pace. Now the question: Is it globalization and the consequent spread of the global languages, to say at English language which is responsible for the endangerment of other languages?
It has had a very unfathomable impact on our culture and has dug its way to the roots of our culture. As we are well aware, westernization has been the by-product of globalization and needless to say, it has had an impact on the Indian way of life.
Without a doubt, it has brought great changes in the culture and the rate at which westernization is happening to India is astonishing. Regional languages are on the verge of extinction and many minority languages have already disappeared. Many minority languages have already been replaced by English or other international languages such as French, German or Spanish. Indian youngsters have started getting obsessions with western attire, languages, mannerisms and everything else western.
As the world becomes more connected and shrinking in space than ever before, language diversity is reducing at an unparalleled pace. Languages are endangered by many other external forces such as military, economic, religious, cultural or educational subjugation, or by internal forces such as a community's negative attitude towards its own language.
Even the internet languages, on grounds of a digital divide that locks out some groups and privileges others and their language. The Bodo language is also not an exception and could not escape from the heat of globalization. The new trend which is being adopted by current generation is completely devoid of cultural touch and many of them have already lost its roots.
The contemporary Assam is witnessing a new trend which is developing very forcefully.
The mushrooming of English Medium schools in every nook and corner and abandoning vernacular medium schools is a very much dangerous trend. As a result, only the children from the poor and less informed families are opting for Bodo Medium BM schools. It has a tumbling effect on the BM schools and the survival of these schools is at great a stake.
Moreover there is no serious attempt to develop the Bodo languages and literature and though developmental activities are being carried out in the said language the pace of development is not encouraging In spite of being one of the major languages of India, it has several problems including the survival as a medium of instruction and development of language and literature.
There is still certain pressing issue which needs to be addressed immediately. The shortage of Bodo language teachers in the educational institutions and huge number of Bodo Medium venture schools demands an immediate solution from the provincial government. Many a time, the school textbooks never reach on time to students.
The dignified silence on the part of provincial government and education department is maintaining a distinguished silence over these serious problems. The Government s apathetic attitude towards Bodo medium was very unfortunate.
The state legislation on provincialization completely violates the right to education national legislation provision of ensuring free and compulsory education to children from lower primary to upper primary level. The government, and especially the education department, did not pay any attention to address the problem of Bodo medium education. The terrible condition of vernacular medium schools also hugely motivated parents to send their kids to the well equipped private EM schools.
Since its inception, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO are consistently working hard on the cultural preservation of cultural minorities, education, indigenous culture and other areas. Several resolutions have been declared regarding the rights of cultural minorities.
It is highly praiseworthy that UNESCO has always been promoting languages and multilingualism by involving education, culture, science, communication and information and social and human science. In , UNESCO passed an International treaty to preserve the rich diversity of the world s means of cultural expression from the dangers of globalization, including its many languages. This treaty is a great clarion call and holds significant meaning in maintaining world s cultural diversity.
The globalized and transparent nature of today s trend demands other minorities to interact with the culture majority by working for global companies and accessing technology. Nation-states are on the lookout for solutions to deal with diverse societies, on ensuring the unity and inclusion with various national, ethnic, religious and linguistic groups. As we know, cultural identity is an essential part of peaceful cooperation.
People with a strong good judgment of identity are more expected to interact with other world cultures. And languages play a pivotal role in constructing the identity. Today, the world is losing languages every other day at an unimaginable rate and one of the greatest reasons of languages vanishing is due to lack of education provided in school to pursue students continue speaking in their own mother tongue.
Never before we were living in a more globalized and transparent world in history. The aversion of the state, either for political or economic reasons or cultural hegemony is also why minority culture was not officially implemented in schools. These are serious implications on the minority languages and as a result loss of cultural values disappearing or total assimilation to the dominant cultures. Consistent efforts were being made to impose western ideas as universal and leading to what is essentially cultural imperialism.
Mainstream news media and films also create such an impression on societies that adopting western lifestyles as cool and intelligent move. The onslaught of globalization on Bodo culture is immense. The complete following of westernizations like customs, music, dress, food habits, and life styles has brought tremendous changes in the behavior of the Bodo culture. Today, the market for vernacular music and traditional songs are almost non-existent and revival process is at a snail s pace.
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The developments of regional films are almost out of question since it is not profitable and attractive adventure anymore. Most of the youngsters are already ignorant about past cultures which were practiced during grandmothers and grandparents time. The community members are also equally accountable for this terrible loss of beautiful cultures which were not passed down or taught for obviously various reasons. To cite some examples like traditional games, customs and traditions are a great loss for the community and world diversity.
The revival process should start and the greatest effort should be put to preserve for the generations to come. Regrettably, it's blurred as to how unerringly culture can be preserved in the face of economic domination in a particular region.
Contemporary and modern efforts include cataloging languages on the internet, updating about the language and teaching them. In a number of instances preservation efforts were primarily focused on at-risk areas experiencing economic growth. Right from the environmental challenges from the climatic change, air, water, ocean, soil pollution etc. May it be business, trade, and work exposure or the economic and financial status of the nation; no field is left behind the reach of globalization.
The unbridled expansion of western culture has continued at an accelerated rate along with the denigration and decline of others culture, civilization, religion, art, literature and customs. One major consequence of globalization is the increased spread and interconnectedness of languages, in particular the English language Crystal, It is known that the English language is becoming increasingly widespread across the globe. We must understand and know that the tall promises of globalization can t be fulfilled without paying price but the price paid should not exceed the benefits derived from them.
The cost we are paying as a nation and community members in the form of violation done by various agents of globalization is much higher a price. The exploitation done in the backdrop of growth and change is much larger than it is seen with the naked eye. In the name of globalize world we just can t remain and see a particular language disappearing.
Rather, we should look for the tremendous potential offered by globalization, growing cross border dealings along with different social actors and establishment of democratic, effective, and inclusive international institutions, in line with the need for international level synchronization.
Keeping in view the Bodos case, the Bodos are in dire need of solutions. Positive role of Bodo intellectuals, scholars and awareness among the guardians of students can reverse this trend and can bring about a great change in near future. The importance of culture should be taught to the young generations in the school level and continuous exposure is the need of the hour.
The immediate provincialization of Bodo Medium schools, timely appointment of sufficient teachers, timely distribution of free text books and separate directorate for Bodo Medium to improve the Bodo medium schools and other problems.
My humble suggestions and remedy to the persisting challenges before is we need to have self -analysis, serious introspection, because Bodo problem is not clearly only political but economic, cultural, social, linguistic and psychic as well.
The culture of peace has to be cultivated and the provincial government should heed attention to the Bodo languages issues immediately. To promote and safeguard Bodo language for the days to come, community members must love the language and learn it in formal settings.
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