Once these were solved, MOS digital integrated circuits started to take off in full in the early is that, as of now, these trends have not shown any signs of a slow- down. Material εr Free space 1 Aerogels ~ Polyimides (organic) Silicon. Download Analog integrated circuit design / Tony Chan Carusone, David A. Johns, Digital integrated circuits: analysis and design / J.E. Ayers. p. cm. Download Digital Integrated Circuits Notes Download free online book chm pdf. Digital Integrated Circuits Notes by. Jan M. Rabaey File Type:Online Number.
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DOWNLOAD – Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design Perspective By Jan M Rabaey – Free Download PDF. a perspective integrated circuit design. January 18, AM Section Jan m. rabaey digital integrated circuits, a design Download. Issues in Digital Integrated Circuit Design. ply line can cause a voltage drop over the wire, which, in its turn, can slow down all the connected cells.
For readers interested in digital circuit design. Since the publication of the first edition of this book in , CMOS manufacturing technology has continued its breathtaking pace, scaling to ever-smaller dimensions. Minimum feature sizes are now reaching the rim realm. Circuits are becoming more complex, challenging the productivity of the designer, while the plunge into the deep-submicron space causes devices to behave differently and brings to the forefront a number of new issues that impact the reliability, cost, performance, power dissipation, and reliability of the digital IC. This updated text reflects the ongoing r evolution in the world of digital integrated circuit design, caused by this move into the deep-submicron realm. This means increased importance of deep-submicron transistor effects, interconnect, signal integrity, high-performance and low-power design, timing, and clock distribution. Even more than for the first edition, this book uses its companion website to evolve and grow over time.
The performance of, for instance, an adder can be substantially influenced by the way it is connected to its environment. The interconnection wires themselves contribute to delay as they introduce parasitic capacitances, resistances and even inductances. The impact of the interconnect parasitics is bound to increase in the years to come with the scaling of the technology.
Some design entities tend to be global or external to resort anew to the software analogy. Examples of global factors are the clock signals, used for synchronization in a digital design, and the supply lines.
Increasing the size of a digital design has a profound effect on these global signals. For instance, connecting more cells to a supply line can cause a voltage drop over the wire, which, in its turn, can slow down all the connected cells. Issues such as clock distribution, circuit synchronization, and supply-voltage distribution are becoming more and more critical.
Coping with them requires a profound understanding of the intricacies of digital circuit design. A typical example of this is the periodical reemergence of power dissipation as a constraining factor, as was already illustrated in the historical overview.
Another example is the changing ratio between device and interconnect parasitics. To cope with these unforeseen factors, one must at least be able to model and analyze their impact, requiring once again a profound insight into circuit topology and behavior.
A fabricated circuit does not always exhibit the exact waveforms one might expect from advance simulations. Deviations can be caused by variations in the fabrication process parameters, or by the inductance of the package, or by a badly modeled clock signal. Troubleshooting a design requires circuit expertise. For all the above reasons, it is my belief that an in-depth knowledge of digital circuit design techniques and approaches is an essential asset for a digital-system designer.
Digital Integrated Circuits, 2nd Edition
Even though she might not have to deal with the details of the circuit on a daily basis, the understanding will help her to cope with unexpected circumstances and to determine the dominant effects when analyzing a design. Example 1. The function of the clock signal in a digital design is to order the multitude of events happening in the circuit.
This task can be compared to the function of a traffic light that determines which cars are allowed to move. It also makes sure that all operations are completed before the next one starts—a traffic light should be green long enough to allow a car or a pedestrian to cross the road.
Under ideal circumstances, the clock signal is a periodic step waveform with abrupt transitions between the low and the high values Figure 1. Consider, for instance, the circuit configuration of Figure 1.
This sampled value is preserved and appears at the output until the clock rises anew and a new input is sam- Under normal circuit operating conditions, this is exactly what happens, as demonstrated in the simulated response of Figure 1. When the degeneration is within bounds, the functionality of the latch is not impacted.
When these bounds are exceeded the latch suddenly starts to malfunction as shown in Figure 1. The output signal makes unexpected transitions at the falling clock edge, and extra spikes can be observed as well. Propagation of these erroneous values can cause the digital system to go into a unforeseen mode and crash.
This example clearly shows how global effects, such as adding extra load to a clock, can change the behavior of an individual module. Observe that the effects shown are not universal, but are a property of the register circuit used. Besides the requirement of steep edges, other constraints must be imposed on clock signals to ensure correct operation. A second requirement related to clock alignment, is illustrated in Figure 1.
This is confirmed by the simulations shown in Figure 1. Due to delays associated with routing the clock wires, it may happen that the clocks become misaligned with respect to each other.
As a result, the registers are interpreting time indicated by the clock signal differently. If the time it takes to propagate the output of the first register to the input of the second is smaller than the clock delay, the latter will sample the wrong value.
Clock misalignment, or clock skew, as it is normally called, is another example of how global signals may influence the functioning of a hierarchically designed system. Clock skew is actually one of the most critical design problems facing the designers of large, high-performance systems. The purpose of this textbook is to provide a bridge between the abstract vision of digital design and the underlying digital circuit and its peculiarities.
While starting from a solid understanding of the operation of electronic devices and an in-depth analysis of the nucleus of digital design—the inverter—we will gradually channel this knowledge into the design of more complex entities, such as complex gates, datapaths, registers, controllers, and memories.
The persistent quest for a designer when designing each of the mentioned modules is to identify the dominant design parameters, to locate the section of the design he should focus his optimizations on, and to determine the specific properties that make the module under investigation e.
These properties help to quantify the quality of a design from different perspectives: Which one of these metrics is most important depends upon the application.
For instance, pure speed is a crucial property in a compute server. On the other hand, energy consumption is a dominant metric for hand-held mobile applications such as cell phones. The introduced properties are relevant at all levels of the design hierarchy, be it system, chip, module, and gate. To ensure consistency in the definitions throughout the design hierarchy stack, we propose a bottom-up approach: Fixed Cost The fixed cost is independent of the sales volume, the number of products sold.
An important component of the fixed cost of an integrated circuit is the effort in time and manpower it takes to produce the design. This design cost is strongly influenced by the complexity of the design, the aggressiveness of the specifications, and the productivity of the designer.
Advanced design methodologies that automate major parts of the design process can help to boost the latter. Bringing down the design cost in the presence of an everincreasing IC complexity is one of the major challenges that is always facing the semiconductor industry. The Design Additionally, one has to account for the indirect costs, the company overhead that cannot be billed directly to one product. Variable Cost This accounts for the cost that is directly attributable to a manufactured product, and is hence proportional to the product volume.
Variable costs include the costs of the parts used in the product, assembly costs, and testing costs. This also explains why it makes sense to have large design team working for a number of years on a hugely successful product such as a microprocessor. While the cost of producing a single transistor has dropped exponentially over the past decades, the basic variable-cost equation has not changed: Upon completion of the fabrication, the wafer is chopped into dies, which are then individually packaged after being tested.
We will focus on the cost of the dies in this discussion. The cost of packaging and test is the topic of later chapters. Single die Figure 1. Each square represents a die. The die cost depends upon the number of good die on a wafer, and the percentage of those that are functional.
The latter factor is called the die yield. The actual situation is somewhat more complicated as wafers are round, and chips are square. Dies around the perimeter of the wafer are therefore lost. The size of the wafer has been steadily increasing over the years, yielding more dies per fabrication run. The actual relation between cost and area is more complex, and depends upon the die yield. Both the substrate material and the manufacturing process introduce faults that can cause a chip to fail.
Assuming that the defects are randomly distributed over the wafer, and that the yield is inversely proportional to the complexity of the fabrication process, we obtain the following expression of the die yield: The defects per unit area is a measure of the material and process induced faults. A value between 0. Determine the die yield of this CMOS process run.
The number of dies per wafer can be estimated with the following expression, which takes into account the lost dies around the perimeter of the wafer. The die yield can be computed with the aid of Eq. This means that on the average only 40 of the dies will be fully functional. The bottom line is that the number of functional of dies per wafer, and hence the cost per die is a strong function of the die area.
While the yield tends to be excellent for the smaller designs, it drops rapidly once a certain threshold is exceeded. Bearing in mind the equations derived above and the typical parameter values, we can conclude that die costs are proportional to the fourth power of the area: Small area is hence a desirable property for a digital gate.
The smaller the gate, the higher the integration density and the smaller the die size. Smaller gates furthermore tend to be faster and consume less energy, as the total gate capacitance—which is one of the dominant performance parameters—often scales with the area. The number of transistors in a gate is indicative for the expected implementation area. Other parameters may have an impact, though.
For instance, a complex interconnect pattern between the transistors can cause the wiring area to dominate. The gate complexity, as expressed by the number of transistors and the regularity of the interconnect structure, also has an impact on the design cost. Complex structures are harder to implement and tend to take more of the designers valuable time.
Simplicity and regularity is a precious property in cost-sensitive designs. The measured behavior of a manufactured circuit normally deviates from the One reason for this aberration are the variations in the manufacturing process.
The dimensions, threshold voltages, and currents of an MOS transistor vary between runs or even on a single wafer or die. The electrical behavior of a circuit can be profoundly affected by those variations. The presence of disturbing noise sources on or off the chip is another source of deviations in circuit response. Some examples of digital noise sources are depicted in Figure 1.
For instance, two wires placed side by side in an integrated circuit form a coupling capacitor and a mutual inductance. Hence, a voltage or current change on one of the wires can influence the signals on the neighboring wire.
Noise on the power and ground rails of a gate also influences the signal levels in the gate. Most noise in a digital system is internally generated, and the noise value is proportional to the signal swing. Capacitive and inductive cross talk, and the internally-generated power supply noise are examples of such. Other noise sources such as input power supply noise are external to the system, and their value is not related to the signal levels.
For these sources, the noise level is directly expressed in Volt or Ampere. Noise sources that are a function of the signal level are better expressed as a fraction or percentage of the signal level. Noise is a major concern in the engineering of digital circuits.
How to cope with all these disturbances is one of the main challenges in the design of high-performance digital circuits and is a recurring topic in this book. VD D v t i t a Inductive coupling Figure 1. The definition and derivation of these parameters requires a prior understanding of how digital signals are represented in the world of electronic circuits. Digital circuits DC perform operations on logical or Boolean variables.
A logical variable x can only assume two discrete values: In a physical implementation, such a variable is represented by an electrical quantity. This is most often a node voltage that is not discrete but can adopt a continuous range of values. This electrical voltage is turned into a discrete variable by associating a nominal voltage level with each logic state: The difference between the two is called the logic or signal swing Vsw.
An example of an inverter VTC is shown in Figure 1. The gate threshold voltage presents the midpoint of the switching characteristics, which is obtained when the output of a gate is short-circuited to the input. This point will prove to be of particular interest when studying circuits with feedback also called sequential circuits.
Even if an ideal nominal value is applied at the input of a gate, the output signal often deviates from the expected nominal value. These deviations can be caused by noise or by the loading on the output of the gate i. Steady-state signals should avoid this region if proper circuit operation is to be ensured. It is obvious that the margins should be larger than 0 for a digital circuit to be functional and by preference should be as large as possible. Regenerative Property A large noise margin is a desirable, but not sufficient requirement.
Assume that a signal is disturbed by noise and differs from the nominal voltage levels. As long as the signal is within the noise margins, the following gate continues to function correctly, although its output voltage varies from the nominal one. This deviation is added to the noise injected at the output node and passed to the next gate. The effect of different noise sources may accumulate and eventually force a signal level into the undefined region. This property can be understood as follows: The input signal to the chain is a step-waveform with a degraded amplitude, which could be caused by noise.
Instead of swinging from rail to rail, From the simulation, it can be observed that this deviation rapidly disappears, while progressing through the chain; v1, for instance, extends from 0.
The inverter used in this example clearly possesses the regenerative property. The conditions under which a gate is regenerative can be intuitively derived by analyzing a simple case study.
Assume that a voltage v0 , deviating from the nominal voltages, is applied to the first inverter in the chain. The signal voltage gradually converges to the nominal signal after a number of inverter stages, as indicated by the arrows.
In Figure 1. Hence, the characteristic is nonregenerative. The difference between the two cases is due to the gain characteristics of the gates. To be regenerative, the VTC should have a transient region or undefined region with a gain greater than 1 in absolute value, bordered by the two legal zones, where the gain should be smaller than 1. Such a gate has two stable operating points.
This clarifies the definition of the VI H and the V IL levels that form the boundaries between the legal and the transient zones. Noise Immunity While the noise margin is a meaningful means for measuring the robustness of a circuit against noise, it is not sufficient. Noise immunity, on the other hand, expresses the ability of the system to pro- Many digital circuits with low noise margins have very good noise immunity because they reject a noise source rather than overpower it. To study the noise immunity of a gate, we have to construct a noise budget that allocates the power budget to the various power sources.
We assume, for the sake of simplicity, that the noise margin equals half the signal swing for both H and L. To operate correctly, the noise margin has to be larger than the sum of the noise values. On the other hand, the impact of the internal sources is strongly dependent upon the noise suppressing capabilities of the gates, i.
In later chapters, we will discuss some differential logic families that suppress most of the internal noise, and hence can get away with very small noise margins and signal swings. Directivity The directivity property requires a gate to be unidirectional, that is, changes in an output level should not appear at any unchanging input of the same circuit.
If not, an output-signal transition reflects to the gate inputs as a noise signal, affecting the signal integrity. In real gate implementations, full directivity can never be achieved. Some feedback of changes in output levels to the inputs cannot be avoided. Capacitive coupling between inputs and outputs is a typical example of such a feedback. It is important to minimize these changes so that they do not affect the logic levels of the input signals.
Fan-In and Fan-Out The fan-out denotes the number of load gates N that are connected to the output of the driving gate Figure 1. Increasing the fan-out of a gate can affect its logic output levels. From the world of analog amplifiers, we know that this effect is minimized by making the input resistance of the load gates as large as possible minimizing the input currents and by keeping the output resistance of the driving gate small reducing the effects of load currents on the output voltage.
When the fan-out is large, the added load can deteriorate the dynamic performance of the driving gate. For these reasons, many generic and library The fan-in of a gate is defined as the number of inputs to the gate Figure 1. Gates with large fan-in tend to be more complex, which often results in inferior static and dynamic properties.
M N b Fan-in M Figure 1. The ideal inverter model is important because it gives us a metric by which we can judge the quality of actual implementations. Its VTC is shown in Figure 1. The input and output impedances of the ideal gate are infinity and zero, respectively i. The values of the dc-parameters are derived from inspection of the graph.
Performance From a system designers perspective, the performance of a digital circuit expresses the computational load that the circuit can manage.
For instance, a microprocessor is often characterized by the number of instructions it can execute per second. This performance metric depends both on the architecture of the processor—for instance, the number of instructions it can execute in parallel—, and the actual design of logic circuitry. While the former is crucially important, it is not the focus of this text book. We refer the reader to the many excellent books on this topic [for instance, Patterson96].
When focusing on the pure design, performance is most often expressed by the duration of the clock period clock cycle time , or its rate clock frequency.
The minimum value of the clock period for a given technology and design is set by a number of factors such as the time it takes for the signals to propagate through the logic, the time it takes to get the data in and out of the Each of these topics will be discussed in detail on the course of this text book.
At the core of the whole performance analysis, however, lays the performance of an individual gate. The propagation delay t p of a gate defines how quickly it responds to a change at its input s. It expresses the delay experienced by a signal when passing through a gate.
The tpLH defines the response time of the gate for a low to high or positive output transition, while tpHL refers to a high to low or negative transition. The propagation delay tp is defined as the average of the two. Observe that the propagation delay tp , in contrast to tpLH and tpHL, is an artificial gate quality metric, and has no physical meaning per se.
It is mostly used to compare different semiconductor technologies, or logic design styles. The propagation delay is not only a function of the circuit technology and topology, but depends upon other factors as well. Most importantly, the delay is a function of the slopes of the input and output signals of the gate. To quantify these properties, we introduce the rise and fall times tr and tf , which are metrics that apply to individual signal waveforms rather than gates Figure 1.
When comparing the performance of gates implemented in different technologies or circuit styles, it is important not to confuse the picture by including parameters such as load factors, fan-in and fan-out. A uniform way of measuring the tp of a gate, so that technologies can be judged on an equal footing, is desirable. The de-facto standard circuit for delay measurement is the ring oscillator, which consists of an odd number of inverters connected in a circular chain Figure 1.
Due to the odd number of inversions, this circuit does not have a stable operating point and oscillates. The factor 2 results from the observation that a full cycle requires both a low-to-high and a high-to-low transition. Typically, a ring oscillator needs a least five stages to be operational. We must be extremely careful with results obtained from ring oscillator measurements. A tp of 20 psec by no means implies that a circuit built with those gates will operate at 50 GHz.
The oscillator results are primarily useful for quantifying the differences between various manufacturing technologies and gate topologies. The oscillator is an idealized circuit where each gate has a fan-in and fan-out of exactly one and parasitic loads are minimal.
In more realistic digital circuits, fan-ins and fan-outs are higher, and interconnect delays are non-negligible.
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The gate functionality is also substantially more complex than a simple invert operation. The Memory Core. Memory Peripheral Circuitry. Memory Reliability and Yield. Power Dissipation in Memories. Case Studies in Memory Design. Semiconductor Memory Trends and Evolutions. Pearson offers special pricing when you package your text with other student resources. If you're interested in creating a cost-saving package for your students, contact your Pearson rep. We're sorry!
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Description Intended for use in undergraduate senior-level digital circuit design courses with advanced material sufficient for graduate-level courses. NEW - Updating of technology of the deep-submicron realm —The piece makes sure that updates to most of the numeric values with respect to advancing processes can be accomplished easily, by making extensive use of the web page.
Interconnect material takes a more predominant position and is moved forward in the presentation.
Bipolar and non-silicon circuits have been removed —The sections on these approaches will be kept available to the occasional user through the web page. A number of the circuit techniques have been removed or updated or newer approaches have been introduced —Reflects the changes in design approaches over the last decade.
A chapter on manufacturing technology has been introduced Chapter 2 —Design methodologies are introduced throughout the text in synchronicity with the circuit content.
Design methodology inserts —Discuss design automation. New to This Edition. Updating of technology of the deep-submicron realm —The piece makes sure that updates to most of the numeric values with respect to advancing processes can be accomplished easily, by making extensive use of the web page.
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